Consonants /p/ versus /g/: 401 pairs     [gapgag.html]

The spelling of /p/ is always either <p> or <pp> while /g/ is either <g>, <gg> or <gu> in rogue.

This is a contrast between a voiceless and a voiced stop. Iy is unlikely to be a problem for any learners except possibly for those who, like German or Thai speakers, do not used voiced consonants in syllable-final position.

The only rude word confusions in this set are crap/crag, pee/ghee.

Interesting pairs include

cooper cougar
hedgehop (fly an aircraft very low) hedgehog
pander gander
pinnace Guinness
puzzle guzzle
rope rogue

The mean density value is 3.9%. The list makes 198 semantic distinctions, a loading of 54%.

appro aggro 
burp berg 
  burps bergs
burp burg
  burps burgs
cooper cougar
  coopers cougars
cop cog
  cops cogs
crap crag 
  craps crags
Cupar cougar
dapper dagger 
depredation degradation 
  depredations degradations 
dip dig 
  dipping digging 
  dips digs
dipper digger 
  dippers diggers 
Epping egging
flap flag 
  flapping flagging 
  flaps flags
flop flog 
  flopping flogging 
fop fog 
  fops fogs
gap gag 
  gaps gags
gyp jig
  gypping jigging
  gyps jigs
hap hag 
haply Hagley 
hedgehop hedgehog 
  hedgehops hedgehogs
hop hog 
  hopping hogging 
  hops hogs
knap nag
  knapping nagging
  knaps nags
lap lag 
  lapping lagging 
  laps lags
lapse lags
leap league 
  leaping leaguing 
  leaps leagues
lop log 
  lopping logging 
  lops logs
map mag 
  maps mags
nap nag
  napping nagging
  naps nags
nipper nigger 
  nippers niggers 
nipple niggle 
  nipples niggles 
opal ogle 
  opals ogles 
oppression aggression 
  oppressions aggressions 
  oppressive aggressive 
  oppressively aggressively 
  oppressor aggressor 
  oppressors aggressors 
P ghee
pacify gasify 
  pacification gasification 
  pacified gasified 
  pacifies gasifies 
  pacifying gasifying 
pad gad 
  padded gadded 
  padding gadding 
  pads gads 
page gauge 
  paged gauged 
  pages gauges 
  paging gauging 
pail Gael 
  pails Gaels 
pail gale
  pails gales
pain gain 
  pained gained 
  paining gaining 
  pains gains 
painful gainful 
  painfully gainfully 
pal gal 
  pals gals 
pale Gael
  pales Gaels
pale gale
  pales gales
pall gall
  palled galled 
  palling galling 
  palls galls
pall Gaul
  palls Gauls 
pally galley 
panda gander
  pandas ganders 
pander gander 
  panders ganders
pane gain
  panes gains
pang gang
  pangs gangs 
pantry gantry 
  pantries gantries 
pap gap 
pardon garden 
  pardoned gardened 
  pardoning gardening
  pardons gardens 
parlour gala
  parlours galas 
parrot garret 
  parrots garrets 
parry gharry
  parries gharries 
pat GATT 
pate gait 
  pates gaits 
pate gate
  pates gates
Paul gall
Paul Gaul 
pause gauze 
pause gores
pave gave 
paw gore
  pawed gored
  paws gores
pawed gaud 
pawky gawky
pawky Gorky 
pawl gall
  pawls galls
pawl Gaul
  pawls Gauls
paws gauze
pay gay 
  pays gays 
payer gayer 
pays gaze
pea ghee
peace geese 
pearl girl
  pearls girls 
pee ghee
peer gear 
  peered geared 
  peering gearing 
  peers gears 
pep peg 
  pepped pegged
  pepping pegging 
  peps pegs
pert girt
Perth girth
pest guessed 
pest guest
  pests guests 
pet get 
  pets gets 
  petting getting 
pi guy 
  pis guys
pie guy
  pied guyed
  pies guys
piece geese
pied guide 
pig gig
  pigs gigs 
pilfered Guildford 
pill gill
  pills gills
pinion Guinean 
  pinions Guineans 
pills gills
pinnace Guinness
  pinnaces Guinnesses
pinny guinea 
  pinnies guineas 
pip pig 
Pisa geezer
Pisa geyser
plaid glad 
planned gland 
played glade 
plays glaze 
plea glee 
  pleas glees 
please glees
plied glide 
plum glum 
plumb glum
plumber glummer 
plume gloom 
  plumes glooms 
pod god 
  pods gods 
pole goal
  poles goals
poll goal
  polls goals
polled gold 
Polly golly
poly golly
poof goof 
  poofs goofs 
pooh goo 
Poole Goole 
Poole ghoul
pool Goole
pool ghoul
  pools ghouls 
pore gore 
  pored gored
  poring goring 
  pores gores
pored gaud
pores gauze
pork gawk 
port ghat 
  ports ghats
pose goes 
posh gosh 
post ghost 
  posted ghosted 
  posting ghosting 
  posts ghosts 
pot got 
potter gotta
pouffe goof
  pouffes goofs
pound gowned 
pour gore
  poured gored
  pouring goring
  pours gores
poured gaud
pours gauze
pout gout 
praise grays 
praise graze
  praised grazed 
  praises grazes 
  praising grazing 
pram gram 
  prams grams
prate grate 
  prated grated 
  prates grates 
  prating grating 
prate great
pray gray 
  prayed grayed
  praying graying 
  prays grays
prayed grade 
prays graze
preen green
  preens greens
pretty gritty 
  prettier grittier 
  prettiest grittiest 
prey gray
  preyed grayed
  preying graying
  preys grays
preyed grade
preys graze
priest greased
prim grim 
  primmer grimmer 
  primmest grimmest 
  primness grimness 
  primly grimly 
prime grime 
  primed grimed 
  primes grimes 
  priming griming 
pro grow 
prone groan 
pros grows 
prove groove 
  proved grooved 
  proves grooves 
  proving grooving 
prowl growl 
  prowled growled 
  prowling growling 
  prowls growls 
prowler growler 
  prowlers growlers 
Pru grew
pud good 
pulp gulp 
  pulped gulped 
  pulping gulping 
  pulps gulps 
pun gun 
  punned gunned 
  punning gunning 
  puns guns 
pup pug 
purdah girder
purl girl
  purls girls
purred gird 
putt gut 
  putts guts 
  putted gutted 
  putting gutting
putter gutter 
  puttered guttered 
  puttering guttering 
  putters gutters 
puttied gutted
puzzle guzzle 
  puzzled guzzled 
  puzzler guzzler 
  puzzlers guzzlers 
  puzzles guzzles 
  puzzling guzzling 
Pyle guile
rap rag 
  rapped ragged
  rapping ragging 
  raps rags
rapid ragged 
  rapidly raggedly 
reaper Riga
repress regress 
  repressed regressed 
  represses regresses 
  repressing regressing 
  repression regression 
  repressions regressions 
  repressive regressive 
rip rig 
  ripping rigging 
  rips rigs
ripple wriggle
  rippled wriggled
  ripples wriggles
  rippling wriggling
rope rogue 
  ropes rogues
sap sag 
  sapping sagging 
  saps sags
scrap scrag 
  scrapping scragging 
  scraps scrags
scrappy scraggy 
  scrappier scraggier 
  scrappiest scraggiest 
slap slag 
  slapping slagging
  slaps slags
slop slog 
  slopping slogging 
  slops slogs
snap snag 
  snapping snagging 
  snaps snags
soppy soggy 
  soppier soggier 
  soppiest soggiest 
tap tag 
  tapping tagging 
  taps tags
top tog 
  topping togging 
  tops togs
topers togas 
topple toggle 
  topples toggles 
tripper trigger 
  trippers triggers 
tup tug 
vapour vaguer 
whip Whig
whip wig
  whipping wigging
  whippings wiggings
whips wigs
wrap rag
  wrapping ragging
  wraps rags

John Higgins, Shaftesbury, January 2010.